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BOXED WARNINGS:

 


WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO® INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA


A. PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO® INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS

Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO®, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with XARELTO® is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant.

B. SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA

Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO® who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:

  • Use of indwelling epidural catheters

  • Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants, see Drug Interactions

  • A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures

  • A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery

  • Optimal timing between the administration of XARELTO® and neuraxial procedures is not known

Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary.

Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis.

 

 

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Stroke Risk in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF)

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AF and stroke: a dangerous link

AF adversely affects cardiac hemodynamics, resulting in a loss of atrial contraction and a rapid irregular ventricular rate.1 AF puts patients in real danger of stroke. AF affects a significant number of people in the United States—estimated at more than 2 million.2-4 One out of every 6 strokes occurs in a patient with AF.5

Compared with patients with non–AF-related stroke, patients with AF-related stroke are likely to have greater stroke severity.*6

Comorbidities and other risk factors in patients with AF increase the level of risk for stroke. These factors include congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension, advanced age, diabetes, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), vascular disease, and obesity.3,7,8

*Based on a literature review, including studies comparing stroke outcomes in patients with or without AF, studies providing long-term cost-of-stroke analyses, and studies modeling the cost-effectiveness of oral anticoagulation in AF patients. All included studies reported primary data analysis, economic models, or cost-of-stroke data with at least 1 year of follow-up. Impairment was determined on a modified Rankin Scale. Dependency was measured on the Barthel Index.

Risk assessment tools in patients with AF

Stroke risk assessment is critical for patients with AF. Reliable risk assessment tools currently used for patients with AF include CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc.9,10 These risk indexes assign points to factors that increase a patient’s risk of stroke. A high score is associated with a higher risk of stroke.

  • CHADS2 is calculated by adding 1 point each for recent CHF, hypertension, age ≥75 years, and diabetes mellitus, and 2 points for a history of stroke or TIA.9

    • A 75-year-old (+1) patient with hypertension (+1) and diabetes (+1) and a prior stroke (+2) would have a CHADS2 score of 5.

  • CHA2DS2-VASc considers additional risk factors, with
    1 point assigned for CHF, hypertension, age 65-74 years, diabetes, vascular disease, and female sex. Two points are assigned for a history of stroke or TIA, or age ≥75 years.10

Managing stroke risk in patients with AF

Strategies for managing patients with AF focus on assessment of stroke risk along with rate and rhythm control. Rate control is usually achieved through pharmacologic intervention; rhythm control is achieved through pharmacologic intervention or catheter ablation; and stroke risk is managed through anticoagulation therapy.1

 

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The Pivotal ROCKET AF Clinical Trial

Learn about clinical trial results in nonvalvular AF.

Review the Data

The Pivotal ROCKET AF Clinical Trial

 

Efficacy Profile

Explore efficacy results for XARELTO® versus warfarin for reducing stroke risk in nonvalvular AF.

Efficacy Profile

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Safety Profile

See the comparable bleed rates for XARELTO® versus warfarin.

Safety

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Important Safety Information

WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO® INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA

A. PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO® INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS


Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO®, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with XARELTO® is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant.

B. SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA


Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO® who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:

  • Use of indwelling epidural catheters

  • Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants, see Drug Interactions

  • A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures

  • A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery

  • Optimal timing between the administration of XARELTO® and neuraxial procedures is not known

Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary.

Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Active pathological bleeding

  • Severe hypersensitivity reaction to XARELTO® (eg, anaphylactic reactions)

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Increased Risk of Thrombotic Events After Premature Discontinuation: Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO®, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from XARELTO® to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If XARELTO® is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant.

  • Risk of Bleeding: XARELTO® increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious or fatal bleeding. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss and consider the need for blood replacement. Discontinue XARELTO® in patients with active pathological hemorrhage.

    • A specific antidote for rivaroxaban is not available. Because of high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not expected to be dialyzable.

    • Concomitant use of other drugs affecting hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin, P2Y12 platelet inhibitors, other antithrombotic agents, fibrinolytic therapy, and NSAIDs.

  • Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia or Puncture: When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal puncture is employed, patients treated with anticoagulant agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma, which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis. To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of rivaroxaban and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban. Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known. An epidural catheter should not be removed earlier than 18 hours after the last administration of XARELTO®. The next XARELTO® dose is not to be administered earlier than 6 hours after the removal of the catheter. If traumatic puncture occurs, the administration of XARELTO® is to be delayed for 24 hours. Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, monitor frequently to detect any signs or symptoms of neurological impairment, such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness, tingling, or weakness in lower limbs), or bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to immediately report if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae.

  • Use in Patients With Renal Impairment:

    • Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Avoid the use of XARELTO® in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) <15 mL/min, since drug exposure is increased. Discontinue XARELTO® in patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO®.

    • Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE: Avoid the use of XARELTO® in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population.

    • Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery: Avoid the use of XARELTO® in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min. Patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO® should discontinue the treatment.

  • Use in Patients With Hepatic Impairment: No clinical data are available for patients with severe hepatic impairment. Avoid use of XARELTO® in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy, since drug exposure and bleeding risk may be increased.

  • Use With P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors or Inducers: Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO® with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole, itraconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir, indinavir/ritonavir, and conivaptan). Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO® with drugs that are P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (eg, carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, St. John’s wort).

  • Risk of Pregnancy-Related Hemorrhage: In pregnant women, XARELTO® should be used only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the mother and fetus. XARELTO® dosing in pregnancy has not been studied. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO® cannot be monitored with standard laboratory testing and is not readily reversed. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms suggesting blood loss (eg, a drop in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit, hypotension, or fetal distress).

  • Patients With Prosthetic Heart Valves: The safety and efficacy of XARELTO® have not been studied in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Therefore, use of XARELTO® is not recommended in these patients.

  • Acute PE in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients/Patients Who Require Thrombolysis or Pulmonary Embolectomy: Initiation of XARELTO® is not recommended acutely as an alternative to unfractionated heparin in patients with pulmonary embolism who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO® with other anticoagulants due to increased bleeding risk, unless benefit outweighs risk. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss if patients are treated concomitantly with aspirin, other platelet aggregation inhibitors, or NSAIDs.

  • XARELTO® should not be used in patients with CrCl 15 to 80 mL/min who are receiving concomitant combined P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Pregnancy Category C: XARELTO® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to mother and fetus. There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of XARELTO® in pregnant women, and dosing for pregnant women has not been established. Use XARELTO® with caution in pregnant patients because of the potential for pregnancy-related hemorrhage and/or emergent delivery with an anticoagulant that is not readily reversible. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO® cannot be reliably monitored with standard laboratory testing.

  • Labor and Delivery: Safety and effectiveness of XARELTO® during labor and delivery have not been studied in clinical trials.

  • Nursing Mothers: It is not known if rivaroxaban is excreted in human milk.

  • Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

  • Females of Reproductive Potential: Females of reproductive potential requiring anticoagulation should discuss pregnancy planning with their physician.

OVERDOSAGE

  • Discontinue XARELTO® and initiate appropriate therapy if bleeding complications associated with overdosage occur. A specific antidote for rivaroxaban is not available. The use of activated charcoal to reduce absorption in case of XARELTO® overdose may be considered. Due to the high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not expected to be dialyzable.

ADVERSE REACTIONS IN CLINICAL STUDIES

  • The most common adverse reactions with XARELTO® were bleeding complications.

011416-140307
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS.

References:

  1. January CT, Wann S, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Mar 28. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.022. [Epub ahead of print]

  2. Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA. 2001;285(18):2370-2375.

  3. Kannel WB, Benjamin EJ. Status of the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92(1):17-40.

  4. Singh SN, Tang XC, Singh BN, et al; for the SAFE-T Investigators. Quality of life and exercise performance in patients in sinus rhythm versus persistent atrial fibrillation: a Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Substudy.
    J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(4):721-730.

  5. Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, et al; for the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused updates incorporated into the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011;123(10):e269-e367.

  6. Miller PSJ, Andersson FL, Kalra L. Are cost benefits of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation underestimated? Stroke. 2005;36(2):360-366.

  7. Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(13):1449-1457.

  8. Singer DE, Albers GW, Dalen JE, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th ed). Chest. 2008;133(6 suppl):546S-592S.

  9. Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, Boechler M, Rich MW, Radford MJ. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA. 2001;285(22):2864-2870.

  10. Olesen JB, Lip GYH, Hansen ML, et al. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation: nationwide cohort study. BMJ. 2011;342:d124.